- Ideal soil and exposure for growing beans in a vegetable garden
- Sowing date of the beans
- Board of maintenance and cultivation of the bean
- Harvesting, conservation and use of the bean
- Diseases, pests and parasites of the bean
- Location and favorable association of beans
- Varieties of beans recommended for a plantation in the garden
The bean (Vicia faba) is an annual Mediterranean climate plant of the family of legumes that is rather unloved because it is still sold fresh but shelling which takes a little time. This leguminous plant also called gorgia, foliage swamps or field foliage, has thick, square stems, and bears leaves with large oval leaflets.
It is at the join of the leaves that small clusters of white flowers spotted with black appear from May to July. They will give thick pods that each contain 4 to 8 flat seeds, already rather generous corpulence. These seeds, beans, are harvested from May to August and are usually eaten in salads or vegetables, but can be eaten raw or cooked, fresh or dry.
This Mediterranean vegetable still resists cold (-3° C) and can grow in cool climate. It is very rich in fiber and protein (25%), and is consumed only fresh today probably because of its thick skin making it difficult to peel when dried. She is very easy to digest when she no longer has her skin.
- Family: Fabaceae
- Type: annual
- Origin: Western Asia, Europe
- Color: white flowers stained with black
- cutting: no
- sowing: February-March or October-November
- Harvest: May to August
- Height: from 30 cm to 1m
Ideal soil and exposure for growing beans in a vegetable garden
The bean appreciates a deep soil, rich, consistent, rather calcareous, but especially not acid. A warm and sunny exposure, and the bean feels like home.
Sowing date of the beans
Sowing takes place in February-April or October-November. Place 3 seedlings spaced approximately 20 cm apart, in rows spaced about 15 cm apart. The seeds should be placed about 3 cm deep.
- See the file: sowing of beans
Board of maintenance and cultivation of the bean
Hoeing, watering and regular weeding. When they reach 15 cm, the young beans must be bumped.
In the case where aphids land without being invited, it is advisable to pinch the ends of the invaded shoots, which will promote the development of pods, but it must wait until there are at least 5 floors of flowers.
Harvesting, conservation and use of the bean
It takes 3 to 4 months between spring planting and harvest, so it is good to pick up around May-June or later, during the summer for non-Mediterranean regions. Autumn planting will occur in March-April.
With their husks removed, the green seeds can be frozen once blanched for 30 seconds. To keep them dry, it is necessary to wait until the pods dry completely on foot by becoming black with golden reflections: then, collect them and leave the dry beans which you will keep dry several months.
Fresh beans are eaten raw after removing their husks, boiled or sautéed in the pan. Dry, they must soak at least 12 hours and be cooked for 2 hours without their envelope.
Diseases, pests and parasites of the bean
The main problems with the bean are aphids, but also rust, mildew, bean bush, bean thrips.
Location and favorable association of beans
Keep the bean away from onions, shallots and garlic, but it will be good companions alongside artichokes, celery, corn and potatoes.
Sow also rocket (Eruca sativa) next to the beans: it will rise and bloom from the first heat of spring, attracting many insects that will not fail to jump on the beans to go eat aphids! In the South, rosemary will have the same effect.
Varieties of beans recommended for a plantation in the garden
There are different species including bean Aguadulce very long pod appreciated for the speed of its growth, the bean Major, early but resistant to all climates, as well as the bean of Seville that gives big white grains, the bean Swamps, the bean of Windsor, the green dwarf bean of Berck…
Fababeans are a subspecies (Vicia faba var. equina or minor) which is mainly used for livestock feed.